Send to

Choose Destination
Infect Immun. 2011 Aug;79(8):3445-54. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00025-11. Epub 2011 May 31.

Expression of Toll-like receptor 4 and downstream effectors in selected cecal cell subpopulations of chicks resistant or susceptible to Salmonella carrier state.

Author information

INRA, UR1282 Infectiologie Animale et Santé Publique, F-37380 Nouzilly, France.


Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which recognizes lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria, plays a major role in resistance of mice and humans to Salmonella infection. In chickens, Salmonella may establish a carrier state whereby bacteria are able to persist in the host organism without triggering clinical signs. Based on cellular morphological parameters, we developed a method, without using antibodies, to separate three cecal cell subpopulations: lymphocytes, enterocytes, and a population encompassing multiple cell types. We analyzed the mRNA expression of TLR4, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8, IL-12, and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) in cecal subpopulations of chicks from inbred lines resistant or susceptible to the carrier state infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The results showed that resistance to the carrier state in chicks is associated with a larger percentage of lymphocytes and with higher levels of expression of TLR4 and IL-8 at homeostasis in the three cell subpopulations, as well as with a higher level of expression of LITAF in lymphocytes during the carrier state. In contrast to the early phase of infection, the carrier state is characterized by no major cell recruitment differences between infected and noninfected animals and no significant modification in terms of TLR4, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12, and LITAF expression in all cell subpopulations measured. However, TLR4 expression increased in the lymphocytes of chicks from the susceptible line, reaching the same level as that in infected chicks from the resistant line. These observations suggest that the carrier state is characterized by a lack of immune activation and highlight the interest of working at the level of the cell population rather than that of the organ.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center