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PLoS One. 2011;6(5):e19979. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019979. Epub 2011 May 18.

C-terminus glycans with critical functional role in the maturation of secretory glycoproteins.

Author information

1
Department Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry of Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania.

Abstract

The N-glycans of membrane glycoproteins are mainly exposed to the extracellular space. Human tyrosinase is a transmembrane glycoprotein with six or seven bulky N-glycans exposed towards the lumen of subcellular organelles. The central active site region of human tyrosinase is modeled here within less than 2.5 Å accuracy starting from Streptomyces castaneoglobisporus tyrosinase. The model accounts for the last five C-terminus glycosylation sites of which four are occupied and indicates that these cluster in two pairs--one in close vicinity to the active site and the other on the opposite side. We have analyzed and compared the roles of all tyrosinase N-glycans during tyrosinase processing with a special focus on the proximal to the active site N-glycans, s6:N337 and s7:N371, versus s3:N161 and s4:N230 which decorate the opposite side of the domain. To this end, we have constructed mutants of human tyrosinase in which its seven N-glycosylation sites were deleted. Ablation of the s6:N337 and s7:N371 sites arrests the post-translational productive folding process resulting in terminally misfolded mutants subjected to degradation through the mannosidase driven ERAD pathway. In contrast, single mutants of the other five N-glycans located either opposite to the active site or into the N-terminus Cys1 extension of tyrosinase are temperature-sensitive mutants and recover enzymatic activity at the permissive temperature of 31°C. Sites s3 and s4 display selective calreticulin binding properties. The C-terminus sites s7 and s6 are critical for the endoplasmic reticulum retention and intracellular disposal. Results herein suggest that individual N-glycan location is critical for the stability, regional folding control and secretion of human tyrosinase and explains some tyrosinase gene missense mutations associated with oculocutaneous albinism type I.

PMID:
21625599
PMCID:
PMC3097235
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0019979
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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