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Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011 Jun;28(6):767-74. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2011.559279.

Surveys of rice sold in Canada for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins.

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Health Canada, Food Laboratories Division, Ontario Region, 2301 Midland Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Approximately 200 samples of rice (including white, brown, red, black, basmati and jasmine, as well as wild rice) from several different countries, including the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid chromatographic methods in two different years. The mean concentrations for aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) were 0.19 and 0.17 ng g(-1) with respective positive incidences of 56% and 43% (≥ the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.002 ng g(-1)). Twenty-three samples analysed in the second year also contained aflatoxin B(2) (AFB(2)) at levels ≥LOD of 0.002 ng g(-1). The five most contaminated samples in each year contained 1.44-7.14 ng AFB(1) g(-1) (year 1) and 1.45-3.48 ng AFB(1) g(-1) (year 2); they were mostly basmati rice from India and Pakistan and black and red rice from Thailand. The average concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) were 0.05 and 0.005 ng g(-1) in year 1 and year 2, respectively; incidences of samples containing ≥LOD of 0.05 ng g(-1) were 43% and 1%, respectively, in the 2 years. All positive OTA results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. For fumonisins, concentrations of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) averaged 4.5 ng g(-1) in 15 positive samples (≥0.7 ng g(-1)) from year 1 (n = 99); fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) and fumonisin B(3) (FB(3)) were also present (≥1 ng g(-1)). In the second year there was only one positive sample (14 ng g(-1) FB(1)) out of 100 analysed. All positive FB(1) results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS.

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