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Urol Clin North Am. 2011 May;38(2):119-24. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2011.02.002. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

Testosterone and prostate cancer: what are the risks for middle-aged men?

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Men's Health Boston, One Brookline Place, Suite 624, Brookline, MA 02445, USA.


With increased recognition of the benefits of testosterone (T) therapy for middle-aged men, there has been a concomitant reexamination of the historical fear that raising T will result in more prostate cancer (PCa). Studies have failed to show increased risk of PCa in men with higher serum T, and supraphysiologic T fails to increase prostate volume or prostate-specific antigen in healthy men. This apparent paradox is explained by the Saturation Model, which posits a finite capacity of androgen to stimulate PCa growth. Modern studies indicate no increased risk of PCa among men with serum T in the therapeutic range.

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