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J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2011 Aug;25(4):744-8. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2011.03.182. Epub 2011 May 26.

Recent advances in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.


Surgical excellence in pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) has begun to spread around the world. The perioperative mortality for this procedure is typically under 10%. The maximal benefit from PTE is derived in those patients who have a high proximal clot burden that is surgically accessible, as outlined by the Jamieson classification. Residual pulmonary hypertension after successful PTE is common and increasingly is managed with maintenance oral pulmonary vasodilator therapy such as endothelin antagonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and/or prostaglandins. The role of pulmonary vasodilator therapy in CTEPH before PTE is limited and should not delay definitive surgical therapy. Although plain deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is the classic technique for CTEPH, alternatives such as DHCA with antegrade cerebral perfusion are feasible as well. Prolonged mechanical ventilation after PTE remains common in part because of reperfusion pulmonary edema. Careful perioperative management can reduce the incidence of this syndrome. Because ventilator-associated pneumonia is also a common complication after PTE, it represents a major opportunity for outcome improvement, particularly because there are multiple modalities for its prevention and prompt diagnosis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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