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Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011 Aug;114(2):101-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2011.03.005. Epub 2011 May 26.

History of sex trafficking, recent experiences of violence, and HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Yale School of Public Health and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, New Haven, USA.



To estimate the prevalence of sex trafficking as a mode of entry into sex work, and to examine associations between sex trafficking and recent violence experiences and HIV vulnerability among female sex workers (FSWs).


In a cross-sectional study in 2006 in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India, 812 FSWs were recruited via respondent-driven sampling to take part in an oral survey of their experiences in sex work.


One in 5 (19.3%) FSWs met the UN definition of sex trafficking. Women trafficked into sex work were more likely than other FSWs to report recent violence experiences (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.81), more clients per week (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.11-2.41), and more days of sex work per week (AOR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.18-2.63), and were less likely to report use of FSW-focused services (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.86). No significant differences emerged regarding HIV knowledge or consistent condom use.


There was a high prevalence of sex trafficking. A history of sex trafficking was associated with a greater vulnerability to recent violence and HIV risk behaviors, underscoring the need for increased attention to the public health needs of trafficked populations.

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