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J Pediatr Surg. 2011 May;46(5):912-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2011.02.027.

Sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformations in children: a scoping review.

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Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5.



This scoping review assesses the literature and summarizes the current evidence on sclerotherapy for the treatment of lymphatic malformations in pediatric patients.


A comprehensive search of published and unpublished literature was conducted using multiple databases. Title, abstract, and full-text screening was conducted by 2 independent clinicians. All discrepancies were resolved during consensus meetings.


A total of 182 articles were retrieved. Forty-four articles were removed as duplicates, and 11 articles were added after reviewing prominent studies. After full-text abstraction, 44 articles and 2 conference proceedings (N = 882 patients) were included in the final results. Twelve articles were classified as level II and 34 articles as level IV evidence. Picibanil (OK-432) was the primary agent used in most included studies. Postinjection symptoms with OK-432 were primarily fever, swelling, and erythema at the site. Life-threatening complications were uncommon and involved postinjection swelling of cervical lesions causing airway compromise.


The literature regarding sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformations is of a low level of evidence and suffers from a lack of standardization. Randomized clinical trials focused on OK-432, bleomycin, or alcoholic solution of zein; standardized dosing protocols; and consistent and reliable outcome reporting will be necessary for further development of treatment guidelines.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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