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J Biol Chem. 2011 Jul 22;286(29):25467-76. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.217216. Epub 2011 May 25.

Protective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor against increased β cell apoptosis induced by dietary sucrose and linoleic acid in mice with diabetes.

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Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan.


Chronic exposure to high glucose and fatty acid levels caused by dietary sugar and fat intake induces β cell apoptosis, leading to the exacerbation of type 2 diabetes. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are two major dietary fatty acids, but their effects in diabetes are unclear. We challenged β cell-specific glucokinase haploinsufficient (Gck(+/-)) mice with a diet containing sucrose and oleic acid (SO) or sucrose and linoleic acid (SL) and analyzed β cell apoptosis. In Gck(+/-) but not wild-type mice, SL significantly decreased the β cell mass and β cell proportion in islet cells arising from increased apoptosis to a greater degree than did SO. The mRNA expression of SREBP-1c was significantly higher, and that of E-cadherin was significantly lower in the islets of Gck(+/-) mice fed SL compared with mice fed SO. We next evaluated monotherapy with desfluorositagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, in these mouse groups. DPP-4 inhibitor protected against β cell apoptosis, restored the β cell mass, and normalized islet morphology in Gck(+/-) mice fed SL. DPP-4 inhibition normalized the changes in the islet expression of SREBP-1c and E-cadherin mRNA induced by the SL diet. Furthermore, linoleic acid induced β cell apoptosis to a greater degree in the presence of high glucose levels than in the presence of low glucose levels in vitro in islets and MIN6 cells, whereas a GLP-1 receptor agonist prevented apoptosis. In conclusion, SL exacerbated β cell apoptosis in diabetic Gck(+/-) mice but not in euglycemic wild-type mice, and DPP-4 inhibition protected against these effects.

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