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Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2011 Jul;20(4):337-44. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0b013e3283477a7b.

CYP24A1 and kidney disease.

Author information

1
Division of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. martin.petkovich@cytochroma.com

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Patients with chronic renal disease have elevated serum phosphate levels, elevated fibroblast-like growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and declining vitamin D status. These changes are related and may be responsible for elevated 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and dysfunctional vitamin D metabolism. This review focuses on the biochemistry and pathophysiology of CYP24A1 and the utility of blocking this enzyme with CYP24A1 inhibitors in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.

RECENT FINDINGS:

CYP24A1 is the cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) and its hormonal form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3], into 24-hydroxylated products targeted for excretion. The CYP24A1-null phenotype is consistent with the catabolic role of CYP24A1. A number of polymorphisms of CYP24A1 have recently been identified. New data from the uremic rat and humans suggest that dysfunctional vitamin D metabolism is due to changes in CYP24A1 expression caused by phosphate and FGF-23 elevations.

SUMMARY:

Changes in serum phosphate and FGF-23 levels in the CKD patient increase CYP24A1 expression resulting in decreased vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency may exacerbate defective calcium and phosphate homeostasis causing renal osteodystrophy and contribute to the other complications of renal disease. These findings argue for increased focus on correcting vitamin D deficiency in CKD patients by blocking CYP24A1 activity.

PMID:
21610497
DOI:
10.1097/MNH.0b013e3283477a7b
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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