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Parasitol Res. 2012 Jan;110(1):103-8. doi: 10.1007/s00436-011-2455-8. Epub 2011 May 24.

In vivo validation of Aloe ferox (Mill). Elephantorrhiza elephantina Bruch. Skeels. and Leonotis leonurus (L) R. BR as potential anthelminthics and antiprotozoals against mixed infections of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

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Department of Livestock and Pasture Sciences, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa.


Aloe ferox (Mill)., Elephantorrhiza elephantina Bruch. Skeels. and Leonotis leonurus (L) R. BR. are some of the plants used by farmers in the Eastern Cape Province to control worms in goats, but information on their efficacy is lacking. The study was conducted to determine efficacy of these plants on gastrointestinal nematodes in natural mixed infections in goats. Forty-eight male goats aged 8-12 months were divided into eight groups (Treatments A-H) of six animals each, balanced in terms of liveweight and worm egg count. Treatments A to F received plant extracts, three animals in each group receiving doses of 250 mg/kg and the other three receiving 500 mg/kg at concentration of 100 mg/ml, while those in G and H received Valbazen® (11.36% albendazole) at 10 mg/kg, and 0.5 ml/kg distilled water, respectively per os. Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 3, 6 and 9 for faecal egg counts (FEC), and body weights recorded on days 1 and 9. Results showed significant reductions (P < 0.05) in strongyle eggs by A. ferox extract at dose levels of 500 mg/kg on days 3, 6 and 9, while reductions in Eimeria spp. oocysts were observed on days 3, 6 and 9 for animals that received 500 mg/kg doses. E. elephantina caused significant reduction (P < 0.05) of Trichuris spp. eggs on days 3 and 6, respectively at 250 mg/kg dose level, whereas L. leonurus also caused significant reduction (P < 0.05) in FEC of Trichuris spp. and Eimeria spp. oocysts at 250 mg/kg dose level on day 9. Albendazole caused reductions (P < 0.05) in strongyle eggs on days 3 and 6, Trichuris spp. on days 3, 6 and 9, and on coccidia, it caused a reduction (P > 0.05) on day 1, whereas on days 6 and 9, there was an increase. On total mixed infections, highest FECR% were observed with the extract of A. ferox on days 3 (53%), 6 (54%) and 9 (58%) at 500 mg/kg,whereas albendazole had efficacy levels of 39%, 44% and 29% on days 3, 6 and 9, respectively. Body weight of goats from days 1 to 9 were not significant different from the control. The study revealed efficacy of A. ferox, E. elephantina and L. leonurus against gastrointestinal parasites at high doses (500 mg/kg), showing that the plants have the potential to be used as anthelminthics.

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