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J Sch Nurs. 2011 Oct;27(5):348-54. doi: 10.1177/1059840511410434. Epub 2011 May 23.

Early to bed, early to rise?: an exploration of adolescent sleep hygiene practices.

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School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.


Cognition, memory, safety, mental health, and weight are all affected by inadequate sleep. Biological studies indicate significant changes in sleep architecture during adolescence, such as changes in melatonin secretion, and a need for greater total sleep time. Yet, social contexts and cultural values impinge on these changing biological sleep needs making adolescents vulnerable to the dangers of insufficient sleep. Sleep hygiene practices are purported as potential mediating factors between biological sleep needs and the sociocultural context of sleep. The purpose of this literature review is to highlight biological and social factors contributing to insufficient sleep in adolescents, to explore the evidence of several recommended sleep hygiene practices, and to stimulate further research about how adolescents negotiate their shifting biological sleep needs amid increasing social demands.

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