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J Hazard Mater. 2011 Jul 15;191(1-3):342-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.04.087. Epub 2011 Apr 27.

Speciation of arsenic in rice and estimation of daily intake of different arsenic species by Brazilians through rice consumption.

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Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto-USP, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.


Rice is an important source of essential elements. However, rice may also contain toxic elements such as arsenic. Therefore, in the present study, the concentration of total arsenic and five main chemical species of arsenic (As(3+), As(5+), DMA, MMA and AsB) were evaluated in 44 different rice samples (white, parboiled white, brown, parboiled brown, parboiled organic and organic white) from different Brazilian regions using high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The mean level of total arsenic was 222.8 ng g(-1) and the daily intake of inorganic arsenic (the most toxic form) from rice consumption was estimated as 10% of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) with a daily ingestion of 88 g of rice. Inorganic arsenic (As(3+), As(5+)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) are the predominant forms in all samples. The percentages of species were 38.7; 39.7; 3.7 and 17.8% for DMA, As(3+), MMA and As(5+), respectively. Moreover, rice samples harvested in the state of Rio Grande do Sul presented more fractions of inorganic arsenic than rice in Minas Gerais or Goiás, which could lead to different risks of arsenic exposure.

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