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Foot Ankle Clin. 2011 Jun;16(2):351-66. doi: 10.1016/j.fcl.2011.03.001.

Complex regional pain syndrome.

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Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35205-5327, USA.


Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a challenging pain condition for doctors and patients, with a natural history characterized by chronicity and relapses that can result in significant disability. CRPS is difficult to diagnose and treat, and requires close follow-up to ensure that progress is being made. Early diagnosis and treatment are required to prevent a long-standing or permanent disability. Clinical features such as spontaneous pain, edema, hyperalgesia, temperature or sudomotor changes, motor function abnormality, and autonomic changes are the hallmark of this disease. The treatment of CRPS remains controversial, and includes medications, physical therapy, regional anesthesia, and neuromodulation.

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