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Eur J Radiol. 2011 May;78(2):184-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2010.09.022.

History of PACS in Asia.

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Professor Emeritus Osaka University, Onoharahigashi 6-35-7, Minoh City, Osaka 562-0031, Japan.


First, history of PACS (picture archiving and communication system for medical use) in Japan is described in two parts: in part 1, the early stage of PACS development from 1984 to 2002, and in part 2 the matured stage from 2002 to 2010. PACS in Japan has been developed and installed by local manufacturers by their own technology and demand from domestic hospitals. Part 1 mainly focuses on quantitative growth and part 2 on qualitative change. In part 2, integration of PACS into RIS (radiology information system), HIS (hospital information system), EPR (electronic patient record), teleradiology and IHE (integrating healthcare enterprise) is reported. Interaction with other elements of technology such as moving picture network system and three dimensional display is also discussed. Present situation of main 4 large size hospitals is presented. Second, history of PACS in Korea is reported. Very acute climbing up of filmless PACS diffusion was observed from 1997 to 2000. The reasons for such evolution are described and discussed. Also changes of PACS installation and system integration with other systems such as HIS and role of them in radiological diagnoses in Korea since 2002 are described. Third, history in China is investigated by checking international academic journals in English and described as far as events are logically linked and consistently meaningful.

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