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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Jan;28(1):87-94. doi: 10.1089/AID.2011.0035. Epub 2011 Jun 20.

Virological response and resistance profiles after 18 to 30 months of first- or second-/third-line antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional evaluation in HIV type 1-infected children living in the Central African Republic.

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Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Laboratoire de Virologie, France.


A total of 242 HIV-1-infected children were followed up at the Complexe Pédiatrique of Bangui, Central African Republic, including 165 receiving antiretroviral treatment in first- (n=150) or second-/third-line (n=15) regimens. They were prospectively included in a study, in 2009, to assess their virological status and prevalence of antiretroviral drug-resistance mutations in cases of virological failure, according to revised 2010 WHO criteria (e.g., HIV-1 RNA >3.7 log(10) copies/ml). Detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA was observed in 53% of children under first-line treatment, and virological failure was diagnosed in 40%, which was associated in 85% of cases with viruses harboring at least one drug-resistance mutation to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), and in 36% of cases with at least one major drug-resistance mutation to NRTI or NNRTI when excluding the M184V mutation. Overall, the proportion of children receiving a first-line regimen for a median of 18 months with virological failure associated with drug-resistance mutations, and thus eligible for a second-line treatment, was estimated at 34% of the whole cohort. In children under second-/third-line therapy, virological failure occurred in 47%, plus at least one major drug-resistance mutation to NRTI or NNRTI, though less commonly to protease inhibitors. Taken together, these findings argue in favor of the urgent need to improve distribution of pediatric antiretroviral drugs in the Central African Republic, to increase adherence by treated children, and to offer adequate HIV biological monitoring.

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