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Anesth Analg. 2011 Aug;113(2):336-42. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e31821d3dde. Epub 2011 May 19.

Hyperglycemia during craniotomy for adult traumatic brain injury.

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  • 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Ave., Box 359724, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.



Hyperglycemia after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor outcome, but previous studies have not addressed intraoperative hyperglycemia in adult TBI. In this study, we examined glucose value variability and risk factors for hyperglycemia during craniotomy in adults with TBI.


A retrospective cohort study of patients ≥18 years who underwent urgent or emergent craniotomy for TBI at Harborview Medical Center (level 1 adult and pediatric trauma center) between October 2007 and May 2010 was performed. Preoperative (within 24 hours of anesthesia start) and intraoperative (during anesthesia) glucose values for each patient were retrieved. The prevalence of intraoperative hyperglycemia (glucose ≥200 mg/dL), hypoglycemia (glucose <60 mg/dL), and glycemic trends was determined. Generalized Estimating Equations was used to determine the independent predictors of intraoperative hyperglycemia. Data are presented as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval [CI]), and P < 0.05 reflects significance.


Intraoperative hyperglycemia was common (26 [15%]) and intraoperative hypoglycemia was not observed. Independent risk factors of intraoperative hyperglycemia were age ≥65 years (AOR 3.9 [95% CI: 1.4-10.3]; P = 0.007), Glasgow Coma Scale score <9 (AOR 4.9 [95% CI: 1.6-15.1]; P = 0.006), preoperative hyperglycemia (AOR 4.4 [95% CI: 1.7-11.6]; P = 0.003), and subdural hematoma (AOR 5.6 [95% CI: 1.4-22.2]; P = 0.02). Mean intraoperative glucose was highest in severe TBI patients (P = 0.02). There was both between-patient (79.5% variance; P < 0.001) and within-patient (20.5% variance; P < 0.001) intraoperative glucose value variability. Patients with intraoperative hyperglycemia had higher in-hospital mortality (8 [31%] vs 20 [13%]; P < 0.02).


Intraoperative hyperglycemia was common in adults undergoing urgent/emergent craniotomy for TBI and was predicted by severe TBI, the presence of subdural hematoma, preoperative hyperglycemia, and age ≥65 years. However, there was significant variability in intraoperative glucose values.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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