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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011 Jul;38(1):52-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.03.002. Epub 2011 May 18.

Activity of finafloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone with increased activity at acid pH, towards extracellular and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Legionella pneumophila.

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Pharmacologie cellulaire et moléculaire, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, UCL 73.70, Avenue E. Mounier 73, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.


Finafloxacin, an 8-cyano-substituted fluoroquinolone, expresses enhanced activity at acidic pH and is less susceptible to several fluoroquinolone resistance determinants. In this study, we compared finafloxacin and ciprofloxacin for (i) activity against ciprofloxacin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus as well as wild-type and Lde efflux-positive (Lde+) Listeria monocytogenes, (ii) accumulation in THP-1 macrophages and (iii) intracellular activity towards phagocytised S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Legionella pneumophila (developing in acidic, neutral and mildly acidic environments, respectively), using a pharmacological approach assessing drug potencies and maximal relative efficacies (E(max)). Finafloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were two-fold lower than those of ciprofloxacin against meticillin-susceptible S. aureus ATCC 25923, were only modestly increased in an isogenic strain overexpressing NorA and were ≤0.25 mg/L for community-acquired meticillin-resistant S. aureus. No loss of activity was seen in Lde+ L. monocytogenes. An acidic pH decreased the MIC of finafloxacin and increased that of ciprofloxacin both for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, in parallel with corresponding changes in drug accumulation (tested with S. aureus ATCC 25923 only). Finafloxacin accumulated less than ciprofloxacin in THP-1 cells, but the situation was reversed by exposure of cells to acid pH. In S. aureus-infected cells, acid pH increased the potency of finafloxacin without change of E(max), whilst decreasing the potency and the maximal relative efficacy of ciprofloxacin (less negative E(max)). Finafloxacin was more potent and showed larger E(max) than ciprofloxacin against phagocytised L. pneumophila, but was less potent against phagocytised L. monocytogenes. Finafloxacin appears to be an acid-pH-favoured antibiotic that may find useful applications in infections where the local pH is low.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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