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J Hum Genet. 2011 Jul;56(7):516-23. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2011.51. Epub 2011 May 19.

LCR-initiated rearrangements at the IDS locus, completed with Alu-mediated recombination or non-homologous end joining.

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Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.


Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is caused by mutations in the IDS gene, which encodes the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. In ∼20% of MPS II patients the disorder is caused by gross IDS structural rearrangements. We identified two male cases harboring complex rearrangements involving the IDS gene and the nearby pseudogene, IDSP1, which has been annotated as a low-copy repeat (LCR). In both cases the rearrangement included a partial deletion of IDS and an inverted insertion of the neighboring region. In silico analyses revealed the presence of repetitive elements as well as LCRs at the junctions of rearrangements. Our models illustrate two alternative consequences of rearrangements initiated by non-allelic homologous recombination of LCRs: resolution by a second recombination event (that is, Alu-mediated recombination), or resolution by non-homologous end joining repair. These complex rearrangements have the potential to be recurrent and may be present among those MSP II cases with previously uncharacterized aberrations involving IDS.

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