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Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;94(1):120-7. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.002162. Epub 2011 May 18.

Dietary macronutrient composition affects β cell responsiveness but not insulin sensitivity.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition Sciences at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-3360, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Altering dietary carbohydrate or fat content may have chronic effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity, which may vary with individual metabolic phenotype.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to evaluate the contribution of tightly controlled diets differing in carbohydrate and fat content for 8 wk to insulin sensitivity and β cell responsiveness and whether effects of diet would vary with race, free-living diet, or insulin response.

DESIGN:

Healthy overweight men and women (36 European Americans, 33 African Americans) were provided with food for 8 wk and received either a eucaloric standard diet (55% carbohydrate, 27% fat) or a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate (RedCHO)/higher-fat diet (43% carbohydrate, 39% fat). Insulin sensitivity and β cell responsiveness were assessed at baseline and 8 wk by using a liquid meal tolerance test.

RESULTS:

Insulin sensitivity did not change with diet (P = 0.1601). Static β cell response to glucose (ФS) was 28.5% lower after the RedCHO/higher-fat diet. Subgroup analyses indicated that lower ФS with the RedCHO/higher-fat diet occurred primarily among African Americans. A significant inverse association was observed for change in glucose area under the curve compared with change in ФS.

CONCLUSIONS:

Consumption of a eucaloric 43% carbohydrate/39% fat diet for 8 wk resulted in down-regulation of β cell responsiveness, which was influenced by baseline phenotypic characteristics. Further study is needed to probe the potential cause-and-effect relation between change in ФS and change in glucose tolerance. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00726908.

PMID:
21593507
PMCID:
PMC3127518
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.110.002162
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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