Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 Nov;122(11):2227-35. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2011.04.011. Epub 2011 May 17.

Lempel-Ziv complexity in schizophrenia: a MEG study.

Author information

Department of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.



The neurodevelopmental-neurodegenerative debate is a basic issue in the field of the neuropathological basis of schizophrenia (SCH). Neurophysiological techniques have been scarcely involved in such debate, but nonlinear analysis methods may contribute to it.


Fifteen patients (age range 23-42 years) matching DSM IV-TR criteria for SCH, and 15 sex- and age-matched control subjects (age range 23-42 years) underwent a resting-state magnetoencephalographic evaluation and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) scores were calculated.


Regression analyses indicated that LZC values were strongly dependent on age. Complexity scores increased as a function of age in controls, while SCH patients exhibited a progressive reduction of LZC values. A logistic model including LZC scores, age and the interaction of both variables allowed the classification of patients and controls with high sensitivity and specificity.


Results demonstrated that SCH patients failed to follow the "normal" process of complexity increase as a function of age. In addition, SCH patients exhibited a significant reduction of complexity scores as a function of age, thus paralleling the pattern observed in neurodegenerative diseases.


Our results support the notion of a progressive defect in SCH, which does not contradict the existence of a basic neurodevelopmental alteration.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center