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Trends Cell Biol. 2011 Jul;21(7):409-15. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2011.04.003. Epub 2011 May 17.

Formation of mammalian erythrocytes: chromatin condensation and enucleation.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA. peng-ji@fsm.northwestern.edu

Abstract

In all vertebrates, the cell nucleus becomes highly condensed and transcriptionally inactive during the final stages of red cell biogenesis. Enucleation, the process by which the nucleus is extruded by budding off from the erythroblast, is unique to mammals. Enucleation has critical physiological and evolutionary significance in that it allows an elevation of hemoglobin levels in the blood and also gives red cells their flexible biconcave shape. Recent experiments reveal that enucleation involves multiple molecular and cellular pathways that include histone deacetylation, actin polymerization, cytokinesis, cell-matrix interactions, specific microRNAs and vesicle trafficking; many evolutionarily conserved proteins and genes have been recruited to participate in this uniquely mammalian process. In this review, we discuss recent advances in mammalian erythroblast chromatin condensation and enucleation, and conclude with our perspectives on future studies.

PMID:
21592797
PMCID:
PMC3134284
DOI:
10.1016/j.tcb.2011.04.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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