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Sex Health. 2011 Jun;8(2):143-58. doi: 10.1071/SH10065.

A review of the epidemiology, diagnosis and evidence-based management of Mycoplasma genitalium.

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Women's and Children's Hospital, 72 King William Road, North Adelaide, SA 5003, Australia.


Mycoplasma genitalium is attracting increasing recognition as an important sexually transmitted pathogen. Presented is a review of the epidemiology, detection, presentation and management of M. genitalium infection. Accumulating evidence suggests that M. genitalium is an important cause of non-gonococcal, non-chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis, and is linked with pelvic inflammatory disease and, possibly, obstetric complications. Although there is no standard detection assay, several nucleic acid amplification tests have >95% sensitivity and specificity for M. genitalium. To date, there is a general lack of established protocols for screening in public health clinics. Patients with urethritis or cervicitis should be screened for M. genitalium and some asymptomatic sub-groups should be screened depending on individual factors and local prevalence. Investigations estimating M. genitalium geographic prevalence document generally low incidence, but some communities exhibit infection frequencies comparable to that of Chlamydia trachomatis. Accumulating evidence supports an extended regimen of azithromycin for treatment of M. genitalium infection, as data suggest that stat 1 g azithromycin may be less effective. Although data are limited, azithromycin-resistant cases documented to date respond to an appropriate fluoroquinolone (e.g. moxifloxacin). Inconsistent clinical recognition of M. genitalium may result in treatment failure and subsequent persistence due to ineffective antibiotics. The contrasting nature of existing literature regarding risks of M. genitalium infection emphasises the need for further carefully controlled studies of this emerging pathogen.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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