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J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 Jun;63(6):860-8. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01285.x. Epub 2011 May 3.

Suppression of inflammatory response and endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation in hyperlipidaemic C57BL/6J mice by eugenosedin-A.

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Department of Early Childhood Care and Education, Meiho Institute of Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan.



Eugenosedin-A has been found to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia in C57BL/6J mice. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of action of eugenosedin-A on endothelial function and inflammation in hyperlipidaemic mice.


C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two control groups and two treatment groups. The control mice received either a regular diet or HFD, and the treatment groups were fed HFD with either 5 mg/kg eugenosedin-A or atorvastatin for eight weeks.


Mice fed a HFD had higher concentrations of nitrate (NO) but not prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), increased tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins, but decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) proteins. HFD-induced upregulation of iNOS is associated with p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), PI3K and Akt/IKKα/p65. Eugenosedin-A and atorvastatin reduced HFD-induced TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA, NO generation, upregulation of iNOS protein, and down-regulation of eNOS protein. Both agents inhibited p38, ERK, JNK and Akt/IKKα/p65 protein levels in the aorta. However, eugenosedin-A did not significantly reduce p38 in the liver.


Our results showed an association between obesity-induced inflammation and altered levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, p38, ERK, JNK and Akt/IKKα/p65. Eugenosedin-A, like atorvastatin, could inhibit p38, ERK, JNK, Akt/IKKα/p65 proteins, as well as TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA during the regulation of the obesity-induced inflammatory process.

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