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Indian J Psychiatry. 1997 Apr;39(2):160-5.

Four year follow-up of first episode manic patients.

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  • 1CHRISTODAY R.J. KHESS, M.D., Assistant Professor, Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi-834 006.


51 patients who were admitted for their first manic episode were followed up for 4 years after discharge from the hospital. 32 (62.7%) patients came for regular follow-ups whereas 19 (37.3%) patients did not come for any follow up. 19 (59.4%) patients out of the 32 patients had subsequent recurrences. 8 (25.0%) patients had a single recurrence only, whereas 11 (34.4%) patients had multiple recurrences. In total, 31 (74.19%) recurrences occurred in 4 years, out of which 23 (25.81%) recurrences were for mania and only 8 for depression. 46.88% patients had relapsed at the end of the first year and by the third year all 19 (59.4%) patients had relapsed. The chances of having a depressive episode was highest in the first six months after recovery from manic episode. Patients with a family history of bipolar illness had a more deleterious course. Poor drug compliance was a factor associated with greater relapse rates. Amongst the patients receiving regular medication, the patients who were on lithium had the best outcome. 48.8% patients had subsequent admissions in the four year follow up. Patients with late age of onset and substance abuse had required greater number of admissions.


Manic episode; depressive episode; follow-up and outcome; recurrence

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