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Genes Dev. 2011 May 15;25(10):1010-22. doi: 10.1101/gad.2037511.

CpG islands and the regulation of transcription.

Author information

1
The Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Vertebrate CpG islands (CGIs) are short interspersed DNA sequences that deviate significantly from the average genomic pattern by being GC-rich, CpG-rich, and predominantly nonmethylated. Most, perhaps all, CGIs are sites of transcription initiation, including thousands that are remote from currently annotated promoters. Shared DNA sequence features adapt CGIs for promoter function by destabilizing nucleosomes and attracting proteins that create a transcriptionally permissive chromatin state. Silencing of CGI promoters is achieved through dense CpG methylation or polycomb recruitment, again using their distinctive DNA sequence composition. CGIs are therefore generically equipped to influence local chromatin structure and simplify regulation of gene activity.

PMID:
21576262
PMCID:
PMC3093116
DOI:
10.1101/gad.2037511
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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