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Ann Thorac Med. 2011 Apr;6(2):57-65. doi: 10.4103/1817-1737.78412.

Pulmonary vascular complications of chronic liver disease: Pathophysiology, imaging, and treatment.

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North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, UK.


To review the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular complications of liver disease, we discuss their clinical implications, and therapeutic considerations, with emphasis on potential reversibility of the hepatopulmonary syndrome after liver transplantation. In this review, we also discuss the role of imaging in pulmonary vascular complications associated with liver disease.


Hepatopulmonary syndrome; Yttrium-90 microsphere embolization hepatocellular carcinoma; portopulmonary hypertension; pulmonary arteriovenous shunts

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