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Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2011 Sep;214(5):339-47. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.04.005. Epub 2011 May 12.

Are potential sources for human exposure to bisphenol-A overlooked?

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Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium.


This review summarizes the numerous applications of bisphenol-A (BPA) and the potential sources for human exposure. The exposure to humans is believed to occur mainly through food contamination from polycarbonate bottles, as well as through food and beverage cans coated with epoxy resins. However, there seems to be a discrepancy between exposure assessments based on biomonitoring data and those based on food/drink concentrations. Several recent studies indicated also the importance of non-food sources. Although the main use of BPA is polymerization to polycarbonate and epoxy resins, it can also be used as an additive, from which it may be easily released. Several studies have already provided scientific evidence for the contribution of sources for dermal BPA absorption, such as thermal paper where BPA is used as an additive. Polymeric applications of BPA require further investigation regarding the amounts of BPA present, as well as the factors affecting its release and potential dermal or non-dermal exposure from these sources. It is clear that not all sources of BPA have been identified. This overview emphasizes the necessity to study also the exposure to these unexpected sources of BPA.

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