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Phys Rev Lett. 2011 Apr 15;106(15):156807. Epub 2011 Apr 14.

Direct determination of energy level alignment and charge transport at metal-Alq3 interfaces via ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy.

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Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA.


Using ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy (BEES), we directly determined the energy barrier for electron injection at clean interfaces of Alq(3) with Al and Fe to be 2.1 and 2.2 eV, respectively. We quantitatively modeled the sub-barrier BEES spectra with an accumulated space charge layer, and found that the transport of nonballistic electrons is consistent with random hopping over the injection barrier.

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