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Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Jun 1;45(11):4808-16. doi: 10.1021/es103563z. Epub 2011 May 12.

Intake fraction for particulate matter: recommendations for life cycle impact assessment.

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University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.


Particulate matter (PM) is a significant contributor to death and disease globally. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human exposure to PM into life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. We review literature-derived intake fraction values (the fraction of emissions that are inhaled), based on emission release height and "archetypal" environment (indoor versus outdoor; urban, rural, or remote locations). Recommended intake fraction values are provided for primary PM(10-2.5) (coarse particles), primary PM(2.5) (fine particles), and secondary PM(2.5) from SO(2), NO(x), and NH(3). Intake fraction values vary by orders of magnitude among conditions considered. For outdoor primary PM(2.5), representative intake fraction values (units: milligrams inhaled per kilogram emitted) for urban, rural, and remote areas, respectively, are 44, 3.8, and 0.1 for ground-level emissions, versus 26, 2.6, and 0.1 for an emission-weighted stack height. For outdoor secondary PM, source location and source characteristics typically have only a minor influence on the magnitude of the intake fraction (exception: intake fraction values can be an order of magnitude lower for remote-location emission than for other locations). Outdoor secondary PM(2.5) intake fractions averaged over respective locations and stack heights are 0.89 (from SO(2)), 0.18 (NO(x)), and 1.7 (NH(3)). Estimated average intake fractions are greater for primary PM(10-2.5) than for primary PM(2.5) (21 versus 15), owing in part to differences in average emission height (lower, and therefore closer to people, for PM(10-2.5) than PM(2.5)). For indoor emissions, typical intake fraction values are ∼1000-7000. This paper aims to provide as complete and consistent an archetype framework as possible, given current understanding of each pollutant. Values presented here facilitate incorporating regional impacts into LCIA for human health damage from PM.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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