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Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Sep;62(6):585-92. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2011.566848. Epub 2011 May 11.

Risk factors associated with anemia and iron deficiency among Kuwaiti pregnant women.

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Department of Family Sciences, College for Women, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait.


A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify the risk factors of anemia and iron deficiency in Kuwaiti pregnant women. Pregnant women (n = 465) aged 18-47 years, of 4-39 weeks at gestation were recruited during antenatal visits from six health facilities in Kuwait. Socio-demographic, pregnancy-related and dietary information were collected. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin and serum C-reactive protein concentrations were determined. Logistic regression analysis revealed that iron deficiency and not taking iron-folate tablets or taking them occasionally were the two most important risk factors associated with anemia. Pregnant women with higher gestational age, short birth spacing ( ≤ 2 years), not taking iron-folate tablets or taking them occasionally, not consuming fruit juice, and consuming brown bread, tea and/or coffee were significant risk factors associated with iron deficiency. In conclusion, various factors including dietary habits appeared to be associated with poor iron status, which is the most important risk factor for anemia among Kuwaiti pregnant women.

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