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Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2011 Feb 21;2011:296374. doi: 10.4061/2011/296374.

The usefulness of biological and neuroimaging markers for the diagnosis of early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

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Centre for Ageing Brain and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Piazza Spedali Civili 1, 25125 Brescia, Italy.


The recent proposed criteria for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) have strongly claimed the usefulness of biological and neuroimaging markers for early identification AD. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Tau/Abeta ratio, hippocampal atrophy, posterior cingulate, and neocortical associative area hypometabolism, or amyloid burden evaluated by PiB compound, held the premises to increase diagnostic accuracy in the preclinical disease stages. Despite many efforts to identify subjects at risk of developing AD, less attention has been paid to presenile AD diagnosis. A few data are already available in early onset AD, mainly obtained in cases of monogenic disorder. In this paper, we discuss the current literature on the role of biological and neuroimaging markers in presenile AD.

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