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Cardiol Res Pract. 2011 Mar 21;2011:537101. doi: 10.4061/2011/537101.

Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Substance Use among University Students.

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Department of Psychology, American University, Asbury Building, Washington, DC 20016-8062, USA.


A randomized wait-list controlled trial (N = 295 university students) of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program was conducted in an urban setting. Substance use was assessed by self-report at baseline and 3 months later. For smoking and illicit drug use, there were no significant differences between conditions. For alcohol use, sex X intervention condition interactions were significant; TM instruction lowered drinking rates among male but not female students. TM instruction could play a valuable role in reducing alcohol use among male university students. Limitations are noted, along with suggestions for further research.

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