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Microbes Environ. 2011;26(3):189-97. Epub 2011 May 11.

Distribution and diversity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the sediment of a eutrophic freshwater lake, Lake Kitaura, Japan.

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Laboratory of Marine Microbiology, Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Japan.


Although the emission of N(2) via anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a key process in the elimination of nitrogenous compounds from aquatic environments, little information is available regarding its significance and the relevant microorganisms (anammox bacteria) in eutrophic freshwater lakes. In the present study, the anammox bacteria in the sediment of a eutrophic lake in Japan, Lake Kitaura, were examined using a (15)N-tracer technique to measure their potential anammox activity. Potential anammox activity was localized to the northern region of the lake where a stable supply of both NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) existed in the sediment. These results suggest the contribution of anammox bacteria to the total emission of N(2) from sediment in this eutrophic lake to not be negligible. Moreover, selective PCR successfully amplified anammox bacteria-related (Brocadiales-related) 16S rRNA genes from sediment samples in which potential anammox activity was observed. The clone libraries consisted of diverse phylotypes except the genus "Scalindua"-lineages, and the lineages of genus "Brocadia" were dominantly recovered, followed by the genus "Kuenenia"-lineages. Most of them, however, were novel and phylogenetically distinguishable from known Brocadiales species. A unique population of anammox bacteria inhabits and potentially contributes to the emission of N(2) from Lake Kitaura.

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