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Public Health Nutr. 2011 Sep;14(9):1618-26. doi: 10.1017/S1368980011000759. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen: associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, PO Box 2099, Copenhagen K, Denmark 1014. chsv@si-folkesundhed.dk

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen.

DESIGN:

The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis.

SETTING:

Copenhagen, Denmark.

SUBJECTS:

The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400).

RESULTS:

In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio = 0·66-0·80) in the final model.

CONCLUSIONS:

In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.

PMID:
21557876
DOI:
10.1017/S1368980011000759
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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