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Public Health Nutr. 2011 Sep;14(9):1618-26. doi: 10.1017/S1368980011000759. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen: associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics.

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Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, PO Box 2099, Copenhagen K, Denmark 1014.



To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen.


The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis.


Copenhagen, Denmark.


The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400).


In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio = 0·66-0·80) in the final model.


In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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