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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011 Jul;26(7):2387-90. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr258. Epub 2011 May 9.

Urinary NGAL is a useful clinical biomarker of HIV-associated nephropathy.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is expressed by kidney tubules that are acutely damaged, but few studies have investigated the association of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) with different forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a progressive form of CKD characterized by collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and microcytic tubular dilatation that typically leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

METHODS:

Previously, we reported that microcystic tubular dilatations specifically expressed NGAL RNA, implying that the detection of uNGAL protein could mark advanced HIVAN. To test this idea, we performed a comparative study of diverse proteinuric glomerulopathies in 25 patients who were HIV positive.

RESULTS:

Eighteen patients had HIVAN and seven had other glomerulopathies (four membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, one membranous glomerulonephritis, one amyloid and one malarial GN). HIVAN and non-HIVAN patients did not differ with respect to age, ethnicity, serum creatinine, estimated GFR, proteinuria or the prevalence of hypocomplementemia (6 versus 29%, P = 0.18), but HIVAN patients were less likely to have HCV infections. HIVAN patients expressed 4-fold higher levels of uNGAL than the patients with other glomerulopathies [387 ± 338 versus 94 ± 101 μg/g urine creatinine (uCr), P = 0.02]. A cutpoint of 121.5 μg uNGAL/g uCr demonstrated 94% sensitivity and 71% specificity for the diagnosis of HIVAN, with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.88.

CONCLUSION:

In summary, while HIVAN disease is currently diagnosed only by kidney biopsy, uNGAL can distinguish HIVAN from other proteinuric glomerulopathies in the HIV-infected patient, likely because of its specific expression from characteristic microcysts.

PMID:
21555394
PMCID:
PMC3164447
DOI:
10.1093/ndt/gfr258
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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