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Immunol Lett. 2011 Sep 30;139(1-2):14-24. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2011.04.010. Epub 2011 Apr 30.

TLRs, NLRs and RLRs: innate sensors and their impact on allergic diseases--a current view.

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Research Center Borstel - Leibniz-Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Division of Innate Immunity, Section of Immunoregulation, Parkallee 22, 23845 Borstel, Germany.


Charles Janeway first wrote 1989 about how important recognition of "certain characteristics or patterns common on infectious agents but absent from the host" would be for our immune response [1]. Surprisingly, it almost took 10 years before his ideas would lead to the revolutionary findings that fundamentally changed the view of the innate immune system over the past decade. Recognition of invading microorganisms belongs to the primary tasks of the innate immune system and is achieved through different families of innate immune sensors. Among these, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs) and Rig-I-like receptors (RLRs) have drawn major interests over the last decade. These receptor families are targeted by overlapping classes of pathogens and share functional domains and signal transduction pathways (see Fig. 1 and Table 1 for an overview of their structural organization, ligands, adaptors and activated pathways). This current view describes our present knowledge about these three main innate immune receptor families and their importance for adaptive immune responses such as asthma and allergy.

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