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Mol Pharmacol. 1990 Feb;37(2):255-62.

Bone marrow stromal cell bioactivation and detoxification of the benzene metabolite hydroquinone: comparison of macrophages and fibroblastoid cells.

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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown 26506.


Bone marrow stroma consists predominately of two cell types, macrophages and fibroblastoid stromal cells, which regulate the growth and differentiation of myelopoietic cells via the production of growth factors. We have previously shown that macrophages are more sensitive than fibroblastoid stromal cells (LTF cells) to the toxic effects of the benzene metabolite hydroquinone. In this study, the role of selective bioactivation and/or deactivation in the macrophage-selective effects of hydroquinone was examined. LTF and macrophage cultures were incubated with 10 microM [14C]hydroquinone to examine differential bioactivation. After 24 hr, the amount of 14C covalently bound to acid-insoluble macromolecules was determined. Macrophages had 16-fold higher levels of macromolecule-associated 14C than did LTF cells. Additional experiments revealed that hydroquinone bioactivation to covalent-binding species was hydrogen peroxide dependent in macrophage homogenates. Covalent binding in companion LTF homogenates was minimal, even in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide. These data suggest that a peroxidative event was responsible for bioactivation in macrophages and, in agreement with this, macrophages contained detectable peroxidase activity whereas LTF cells did not. Bioactivation of [14C]hydroquinone to protein-binding species by peroxidase was confirmed utilizing purified human myeloperoxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and ovalbumin as a protein source. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of incubations containing purified myeloperoxidase, hydroquinone, and hydrogen peroxide showed that greater than 90% of hydroquinone was removed and could be detected stoichometrically as 1,4-benzoquinone. 1,4-Benzoquinone was confirmed as a reactive metabolite formed from hydroquinone in macrophage incubations using excess GSH and trapping the reactive quinone as its GSH conjugate, which was measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The activity of DT-diaphorase, a quinone reductase that has been invoked as a protective mechanism in quinone-induced toxicity, was 4-fold higher in LTF cells than macrophages. These data suggest that the macrophage-selective toxicity of hydroquinone results from higher levels of peroxidase-mediated bioactivation and/or lower levels of DT-diaphorase-mediated detoxification.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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