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J Health Econ. 2011 May;30(3):479-88. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.03.001. Epub 2011 Apr 2.

Effects of prenatal and early life malnutrition: evidence from the Greek famine.

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ifo-Institute for Economic Research, Poschingerstrasse 5, 81679 Munich, Germany.

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  • J Health Econ. 2011 Dec;30(6):1294.


This paper examines the long run education and labor market effects from early-life exposure to the Greek 1941-1942 famine. Given the short duration of the famine, we can separately identify the famine effects for cohorts exposed in utero, during infancy and at 1 year of age. We find that adverse outcomes due to the famine are largest for infants. Further, in our regression analysis we exploit the fact that the famine was more severe in urban than in rural areas. Consistent with our prediction, we find that urban-born cohorts show larger negative impacts on educational outcomes than rural-born cohorts.

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