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Br J Clin Psychol. 2011 Jun;50(2):145-63. doi: 10.1348/014466510X500837. Epub 2011 Feb 23.

Clinical correlates of olfactory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

Author information

1
Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

 Olfactory hallucinations (OHs) are underrepresented in conventional clinical instruments, infrequently researched, and poorly understood. To advance understanding of OHs, we examined their past-month prevalence and co-occurring symptoms in two datasets.

DESIGN:

 One dataset comprised categorical codes and was examined using homogeneity analysis and logistic regression; the other dataset comprised numeric ratings and was examined using principal components analyses and linear regression.

METHOD:

 The two datasets included: (1) 962 cases with Present State Examination - 9th Edition (PSE-9), codes (recoded present/absent) from the World Health Organization 10 Country (WHO-10) Study and (2) 265 cases with ratings on Scales for Assessing Positive/Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia (SAPS/SANS). Two PSE-9 items (external- and self-smells) were recoded into a single OH item to examine consistency with the SAPS/SANS dataset, which contained a single OH item.

RESULTS:

 Prevalence of OHs and hallucinations in other modalities differed according to the WHO-10 international centre. Across centres, OHs were present in 13% of the WHO-10 dataset, similar to the 17% prevalence rate in the SAPS/SANS dataset. Referential/control delusions and other hallucinations (particularly, somatic/tactile/gustatory hallucinations) were significant independent correlates of OHs in both datasets. OHs also co-occurred with social anxiety and depression in the WHO-10 dataset, with self-smells being particularly associated with self-depreciation.

CONCLUSIONS:

 Sociocultural factors may modulate the self-reporting and/or detection of OHs and hallucinations in other modalities. Referential/control delusions promote the generation and/or maintenance of OHs independent of factors shared with other hallucinations. OHs and hallucinations of taste, touch, and bodily sensation frequently co-occur. Self-smells warrant sensitive probing.

PMID:
21545448
DOI:
10.1348/014466510X500837
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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