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Epilepsia. 2011 May;52 Suppl 3:26-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03033.x.

Inflammation in epilepsy: clinical observations.

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Department of Neuro Pathology, University of Amsterdam and Epilepsy Institute, the Netherlands.


Over the past decade, an increasing number of observations indicate that activation of inflammatory processes occurs in variety of focal epilepsies. Understanding the feature and consequences of neuroinflammation, including the contribution to development and perpetuation of seizures, as well as to mood or cognitive dysfunction, is a major requisite for delineating its role in epilepsy. The present article discusses the most recent observations supporting the involvement of the inflammatory response in human focal epilepsy. It also evaluates emerging evidence concerning the possibility to identify epilepsy-associated inflammatory biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, as well as the potential application of neuroimaging approaches to study the inflammatory reactions in chronic epilepsy patients in vivo, aiming to improve the recognition of appropriate patient populations who might benefit from antiinflammatory or immunomodulatory therapies.

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