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World J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 26;1(1):13-20. doi: 10.4331/wjbc.v1.i1.13.

Role of post-translational modifications of HTLV-1 Tax in NF-κB activation.

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Noula Shembade, Edward W Harhaj, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, United States.


Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus discovered, is the etiological agent of adult-T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. The HTLV-1 encoded Tax protein is a potent oncoprotein that deregulates gene expression by constitutively activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Tax activation of NF-κB is critical for the immortalization and survival of HTLV-1-infected T cells. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge on mechanisms underlying Tax-mediated NF-κB activation, with an emphasis on post-translational modifications of Tax.


Adult-T-cell leukemia/lymphoma; Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1; Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis; IKK; Nuclear factor-κB

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