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J Food Sci. 2011 Jan-Feb;76(1):E15-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01876.x. Epub 2010 Nov 4.

On the formulation design and rheological evaluations of pectin-based functional gels.

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  • 1Dept. of Food Science, Engineering and Technology, Univ. of Tehran, Karaj 31587-77871, Iran.


In the current study, formulation design and development of a novel pectin-based functional gel were investigated. Amidated low methoxyl pectin (ALMP), high methoxyl pectin (HMP), sorbitol, inulin, rebaudioside-A, gardenia, phloridzin, quercetin, apple flavor, and calcium chloride (as its dihydrated salt) were selected as general ingredients. Response surface methodology was applied to design different formulations and to investigate on their experimental responses. The oscillatory tests were carried out in 2 stages with ALMP, HMP, sorbitol, and inulin as the variables of the 1st stage and ALMP and calcium chloride as the variables of the 2nd stage. Results of the 1st stage indicated relatively similar behaviors throughout the frequency range applied for all of the samples studied (true gels). However, magnitudes of the 5 rheological parameters of this study (storage modulus, loss modulus, loss tangent, complex modulus, and complex viscosity) were affected by different variables (ALMP, HMP, inulin, and sorbitol concentrations). Experimental results confirmed that sorbitol could be omitted from the formula while inulin and HMP could be used at their highest levels studied. At the 2nd stage, only 2 formulas indicated a strong gel behavior and other formulas showed typical behaviors of weaker gels or those of the concentrated solutions. At the conclusion of this study, a finished gelled product formula was suggested with the application of the best levels of the ingredients. The resultant gel was found to be set rapidly with no syneresis and showed a potential to be considered as a functional gelled dessert.

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