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J Behav Med. 2012 Apr;35(2):155-66. doi: 10.1007/s10865-011-9337-5. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Validity of Type D personality in Iceland: association with disease severity and risk markers in cardiac patients.

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Department of Medical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands.


Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D is a valid personality construct in Iceland, and is associated with health-related risk markers, but not cardiac disease severity.

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