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Bioresour Technol. 2011 Jul;102(13):6801-7. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.04.011. Epub 2011 Apr 9.

Development of long-term stable partial nitrification and subsequent anammox process.

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Division of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628, Japan.


The partial nitrification reactor was successfully started up and operated stably for more than 250 days with a maximum nitrite production rate of 1.12 kg-Nm(-3)day(-1). The important factors for successful partial nitrification were high ammonium loading rate (>1.0 kg-Nm(-3)day(-1)) and relatively high pH (ca. 8.0), giving high free ammonia concentrations (>10mg NH(3)-NL(-1)). In addition, the air flow rate must be controlled at the ratio of air flow rate to ammonium loading rate below 0.1 (m(air)(3)day(-1))/(kg-Nm(-3)day(-1)). After the establishment of stable partial nitrification, the effluent NO(2)(-)-N/NH(4)(+)-N ratio and effluent NO(3)(-)-N concentration were 1.20 ± 0.33 and 1.2 ± 1.0mg-NL(-1), respectively, which was then fed into an granular-sludge anammox reactor. Consistent nitrogen removal was achieved for more than 250 days with a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 15.0 kg-TNm(-3)day(-1).

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