Send to

Choose Destination
J Pediatr Urol. 2011 Jun;7(3):294-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2011.03.006. Epub 2011 Apr 27.

Epidemiologic trends in penile anomalies and hypospadias in the state of California, 1985-2006.

Author information

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.



Using statewide data, we evaluated whether the changing incidence of penile anomalies and hypospadias is reflected in the diverse California population of newborn males over the past 20 years.


Discharge data from all California hospitals, prepared by the OSHPD (Sacramento, CA) was reviewed for the years 1985-2006 for male infant births with an ICD-9 code (752.6) for hypospadias, epispadias or other penile anomalies. Trends were examined by Generalized Estimation Equations for Poisson regression.


From 1985 to 2006, the birth incidence of newborn penile anomalies increased in California from 47 to 57 cases per 10,000 newborn discharges, yet the trend for hypospadias alone appears stable from 1997. The rates for penile anomalies in newborns increased 1.4% annually (p < 0.001). All racial/ethnic groups analyzed showed this increase (p < 0.001 for each). During the study period there was a 2% increase per year in plural births (p < 0.001). Interestingly, the rate of change in penile anomaly incidence was greater in males of plural births compared to their singleton cohorts (2% vs 1% annually) (p < 0.001). The birth incidence of cleft palate, another congenital anomaly known to be stable over time, remained unchanged over this period.


From 1985 to 2006 in California the incidence of penile anomalies increased in a statistically significant manner, but the incidence of hypospadias appears stable for the last decade. Our data support the notion that different racial/ethnic groups have distinct incidences of penile anomaly formation and that an association with plural births appears to be present.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center