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PLoS One. 2011 Apr 19;6(4):e18988. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018988.

Cdc48 and cofactors Npl4-Ufd1 are important for G1 progression during heat stress by maintaining cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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Molecular Cell Biology, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.


The ubiquitin-selective chaperone Cdc48, a member of the AAA (ATPase Associated with various cellular Activities) ATPase superfamily, is involved in many processes, including endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), ubiquitin- and proteasome-mediated protein degradation, and mitosis. Although Cdc48 was originally isolated as a cell cycle mutant in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its cell cycle functions have not been well appreciated. We found that temperature-sensitive cdc48-3 mutant is largely arrested at mitosis at 37°C, whereas the mutant is also delayed in G1 progression at 38.5°C. Reporter assays show that the promoter activity of G1 cyclin CLN1, but not CLN2, is reduced in cdc48-3 at 38.5°C. The cofactor npl4-1 and ufd1-2 mutants also exhibit G1 delay and reduced CLN1 promoter activity at 38.5°C, suggesting that Npl4-Ufd1 complex mediates the function of Cdc48 at G1. The G1 delay of cdc48-3 at 38.5°C is a consequence of cell wall defect that over-activates Mpk1, a MAPK family member important for cell wall integrity in response to stress conditions including heat shock. cdc48-3 is hypersensitive to cell wall perturbing agents and is synthetic-sick with mutations in the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. Our results suggest that the cell wall defect in cdc48-3 is exacerbated by heat shock, which sustains Mpk1 activity to block G1 progression. Thus, Cdc48-Npl4-Ufd1 is important for the maintenance of cell wall integrity in order for normal cell growth and division.

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