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J Res Med Sci. 2010 May;15(3):155-66.

Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity.

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Student of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.



The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor's PBT (Problem Behavior Theory).


A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability.


The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The α range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model.


Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.


Adolescence; Emotional Distress; Low Self Concept; Problem Behavior Syndrome

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