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J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2011;4(1):49-62. doi: 10.1159/000327132. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Skeletal muscle gene expression profile is modified by dietary protein source and calcium during energy restriction.

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1
Institute of Biomedicine, Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS:

The potential of whey protein and calcium to modify skeletal muscle gene expression during energy restriction (ER) was investigated in a model of diet-induced obesity.

METHODS:

Obese C57BL/6J mice received casein (calcium 0.4%) and two different high-calcium (1.8%) whey protein-based [whey protein isolate (WPI)+Ca and α-lactalbumin+Ca] diets for ER.

RESULTS:

Compared to casein, WPI and α-lactalbumin-based diets altered 208 and 287 genes, respectively, of which 186 genes were common to WPI and α-lactalbumin diets. These genes represented 31 KEGG pathways. The Wnt signaling was the most enriched pathway among the 101 genes regulated by α-lactalbumin only, whereas the 22 genes regulated by WPI only were not associated with KEGG pathways. Unlike casein, WPI and α-lactalbumin diets decreased Aldh1a7, Fasn, leptin, Nr4a3 and Scd1 mRNA expression, indicating dietary protein source-dependent alterations in muscle lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Muscle weight or lean body mass maintenance did not differ between groups although modest changes in hypertrophy/atrophy signaling were found.

CONCLUSION:

The skeletal muscle gene expression profile is modified by the dietary protein source and calcium during ER which may explain, at least in part, the greater anti-obesity effect of whey proteins and calcium compared to casein.

PMID:
21525773
DOI:
10.1159/000327132
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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