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Circulation. 2011 Apr 26;123(16):1737-44. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.005645.

Trends in mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease among hypertensive and nonhypertensive adults in the United States.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy., Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.



Little is known about trends in the mortality rate among people with hypertension in the United States. The objective of the present study was to examine the change in the all-cause mortality rate among people with and without hypertension in the United States and whether any such changes differed by sex or race.


Data from 10 852 participants aged 25 to 74 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I Epidemiological Follow-Up Study (1971 to 1975) and of 12 420 participants of the NHANES III Linked Mortality Study (1988 to 1994) were used. The mean follow-up times were 17.5 and 14.2 years, respectively. In each cohort, the mortality rate was higher among hypertensive adults than nonhypertensive adults, among hypertensive men than hypertensive women, and among hypertensive blacks than hypertensive whites. Among all hypertensive participants, the age-adjusted mortality rate was 18.8 per 1000 person-years for NHANES I and 14.3 for NHANES III (13.3 and 9.1 per 1000 person-years for nonhypertensive participants, respectively). The reduction among hypertensive men (7.7 per 1000 person-years; 95 confidence interval, 5.2 to 10.2) exceeded that among hypertensive women (1.9 per 1000 person-years; 95 confidence interval, [-0.4 to 4.2]) (P<0.001), and the reduction among hypertensive blacks (5.4 per 1000 person-years; 95 confidence interval, [0.6 to 10.1]) exceeded that among hypertensive whites (4.4 per 1000 person-years; 95 confidence interval, [2.2 to 6.5]) (P=0.707).


The mortality rate decreased among hypertensive adults, but the mortality gap between adults with and without hypertension remained relatively constant. Efforts are needed to accelerate the decrease in the mortality rate among hypertensive adults.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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