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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Nov 1;118(2-3):92-9. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.03.003. Epub 2011 Apr 22.

An examination of psychiatric comorbidities as a function of gender and substance type within an inpatient substance use treatment program.

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Center for Addictions, Personality, and Emotion Research, University of Maryland College Park, Department of Psychology, 1147 Biology Psychology Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA.



There are elevated rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders among individuals with substance dependence; however, little research examines these rates within inpatient settings, particularly in relation to gender and type of substance. The current study aimed to fill this gap.


465 patients (71.4% male) were recruited from an inpatient substance use treatment facility from 2006 to 2009. These patients were interviewed and diagnosed using the Structure Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Diagnostic Interview for Personality Disorders.


60.6% of patients with substance dependence had a current comorbid psychiatric disorder, and more than 30% had at least two psychiatric disorders. The most common current Axis I diagnosis was major depressive disorder (25.8%), followed by PTSD (14%). Comparable rates were found for Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders. Females were significantly more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder than were males (73.7% versus 55.4%). When examining comorbidities across different substance dependences, the highest rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders were found among individuals with alcohol dependence (76.8%) and cannabis dependence (76%), although rates were above 60% for cocaine and opioid dependence. Rates of psychiatric diagnoses were significantly lower (27%) among patients who did not meet diagnostic criteria for substance dependence.


There are particularly elevated rates of psychiatric disorders among individuals with substance dependence in inpatient treatment. These rates differ as a function of substance dependence type and gender, making these factors important to consider when researching and treating this type of population.

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